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Panthera pardus is a kind of cat.


70 cm at the shoulder

Weight range: 60-80 kg

104cm – 190cm in length (small female to large male) The tail may be extended by 110cm.



A distinct huge cat. Other species that are most comparable include the cheetah and the new world Jaguar. The dots on the back and upper limbs are multicolored rosettes, but the spots on the face and lower limbs are solid black. The eyes are green.



Gestation lasts 90 to 112 days, with up to six young born in a cave or thicket and concealed for 6 weeks. Their eyes open at one week, they breastfeed for three months, and they are sexually mature before the age of two. The mother will spend up to 36 hours away from her children, but will stay within 2 kilometers of their hiding place, which she will shift often. Except for mating and the odd reunion of moms and daughters, they are virtually entirely solitary after they reach adulthood.


Where to find them

One of the nicest parts about looking for leopards is that the best time to view them coincides with the best time to see lions. During the day, lions seek refuge in the shade and thick grasses, whilst leopards prefer to remain cool among the branches of large trees. Although their markings sometimes make them difficult to identify in the speckled light beneath the tree canopy, watch for their tails swinging below the limbs. One of them is extremely uncommon to be seen in wide savannah environments.

What to look for
Leopards often take large kills up into tree branches to digest them undisturbed. They are at the bottom of the predator food chain, and their prey may be taken by a single lion or hyena. Bringing kills into trees is less likely in places where they are the sole major predator.

Leopards hardly seldom hunt at night. Only three of 64 daylight efforts were successful in one research in the Serengeti.


Leopards are incredibly stealthy and can live in close proximity to people. Three leopards were discovered residing at the Kampala railway station in 1990.

Despite international safeguards, these jackets are nonetheless extremely expensive on the illegal market.

  • Information in Detail:

Broken terrain with dense vegetation provides stalking cover. They are not found in broad grasslands or other dry places devoid of trees or other forms of shelter (Kingdon, p. 283)

The remains of a leopard were discovered in the ice on Kilimanjaro at 5,692 meters! Estés (p. 366)

  • Most of Africa, save for North and South Africa, where it has been extirpated (Kingdon, p. 283)Overall ranges can range from 9 to 63 square kilometers, although residential core regions are substantially less. It is possible to go 25-75km in a single night. Kingdon (page 283)Rodents, birds, arthropods, and tiny to medium-sized mammals. Will consume nearly anything that can be carried close to cover. Individuals may specialize on a “favorite” dish on occasion. They can hunt giant antelopes but seldom kill anything bigger than themselves. Can consume up to 17kg of meat at once. Kingdon (page 283)


    Insects, livestock, fish, reptiles, birds, dassies, dogs, and so on (Walker, p. 96)

    Will drink if water is offered, but are not reliant on it. Walker (p. 96).

    Impala, Thomson’s gazelle, reedbuck, and the young of topi, hartebeest, wildebeest, and zebra were the principal meals in the Serengeti. EstĂ©s (p. 366)

  • Gestation lasts 90 to 112 days, with up to six young born in a cave or thicket and concealed for 6 weeks. They open their eyes at one week, nurse for three months, and become sexually mature before the age of two. Kindon (page 283) Estrus lasts 7 days and occurs every 46 days till conception (Estes, p. 368)Mother will spend up to 36 hours away from her children, but will stay within 2 kilometers of their hiding place, which she will shift regularly. Estes (page 369)

    Home ranges may overlap in social organization and behavior. They are solitary except while mating, and females rear their young alone. Core ranges are territorial. Estés (p. 367)

    leopardClimbers who are experts. If injured or disturbed, it may be quite harmful. Because they are so covert, there might be more than the present estimate. Walker (p. 96).


    Bite through the throat and nape of the neck to kill prey. Large kills are hauled into the fork of a tree to keep scavengers away. They disembowel the victim first, then feast on the chest, thighs, or anus. They get the majority of their moisture from the blood of their prey. Walker (p. 96).

    The bond between mother and child is strong, and she will continue to share kills with them until they are totally self-sufficient. This might explain why female ranges overlap. Estés (p. 367)

    Unlike lions, which chase prey, the classic “stalk and ambush” predator tries to pounce before the prey can respond. They will rarely pursue if the pounce fails, despite their ability to run at speeds of up to 60 km/h. EstĂ©s (p. 367)

    “Of the seven major African carnivores, only the cheetah ranks higher. Not just the lion, but all three hyenas outweigh a leopard, and wild dogs, despite their lesser size, hunt in packs.” EstĂ©s (p. 368) A solo hyena can take down a leopard.

    Rasping in- and exhalations (sawing) around sunset – often 13 – 16 strokes in a twelve second interval. Scratching and scent marking on trees.

Activity Patterns

Inactive for the most of the day and night, often reclining on a tree branch. I seldom sleep in the same spot two nights in a row. Estés (p. 367)

Daytime hunting is almost never done. In one Serengeti investigation, 61 of 64 daytime efforts were unsuccessful. Estés (p. 367)

Will frequently spray, defecate, or scratch at trail junctions. Kingdon (page 283)

Scats are tapered at one end, become white in the light, and have a lot of fur. Walker (p. 96).

The overall gait length is 95-100 cm (Walker, p. 96)

Claws can be retracted. The track is circular, small, and has a gentle tread (Walker, p. 98)



Despite international regulations, their coats are nevertheless exceedingly expensive on the black market, and it is believed that 50,000 are poached each year. They are also killed in order to keep them from preying on cattle. The Rwenzori subspecies is critically endangered. Kingdon (page 283)

  1. Estes (1991). The African Mammal Behavior Guide. The University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.
  2. Kingdon (1997). The African Mammal Field Guide by Kingdon. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.
  3. Walker (1996). Signs of the Wild: A Field Guide to the Spoor and Signs of Southern African Mammals. Fifth Edition. Struik Publishers Ltd. is based in Cape Town, South Africa.
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